Speedy SQL is an easily deployable platform for teaching SQL. It runs entirely on your browser and is built with Jekyll, meaning that anyone could easily deploy their own version of Speedy SQL. All they need to do is fork the repository, deploy it on GitHub pages, and write a few Markdown files to deploy their own set of questions!
Yep! Speedy SQL is actually running a WebAssembly port of SQLite called sql.js. I came across sql.js while I was trying to port a C++ compiler for a similar project to Speedy SQL using Emscripten. Since I was taking a database course at that time, I decided to just go ahead and make Speedy SQL first while my memory of the course is still fresh ¯\_(ツ)_/¯.
As for how Speedy SQL saves your queries and keeps track of the questions you've solved, everything is stored in your browser's local storage.
Well, to prevent cheating, we kind of have to deploy the standard architecture: a platform where answers are validated inside a Docker container on the server side. If you're someone who can do that though, you're not the target audience of this project.
Alternatively, this could be used as a public learning platform, like websites such as CodingBat. In this case, there really is no reason to care about client side validation.
Maybe. Maybe not.
If you're using Docker container or similar solutions to isolate instances of student answers (relevant XKCD), you might be able to learn something from this project. In my university, and most likely many other universities, gradings are done in container that takes a while to start. So, one answer submission would take a few seconds to finish.
But, as you can test yourself in this website, without the overhead of starting a container, a submission can be evaluated almost instantaneously. You could potentially improve your grading system by opting to spawn a new instance of something similar to sql.js in memory for each student submission. This would significantly improve the evaluation speed while still providing the required isolation.
Alternatively, you could always deploy something similar to Speedy SQL as a playground. Personally, as a student, I always appreciate it when I'm given a playground where I could rapidly test my queries (it blows to wait for a few seconds only to be told that I made a typo).